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TIL: In May 2009, a Man Named Bernard Von Nothaus Was Charged With the Crime of Counterfeiting By Creating the Liberty Dollar. Later That Year, Satoshi Launched the Bitcoin Cryptocurrency Which Couldn't be Shutdown or Seized by Government Officials.

TIL: In May 2009, a Man Named Bernard Von Nothaus Was Charged With the Crime of Counterfeiting By Creating the Liberty Dollar. Later That Year, Satoshi Launched the Bitcoin Cryptocurrency Which Couldn't be Shutdown or Seized by Government Officials. submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Why is the bitcoin community not outraged by the Bernard von NotHaus/Liberty Dollar case?

It is my opinion that Bernard was fully within his rights, just as we are to support and use bitcoin. Lets show some support and help him out.
Here is an interview of Bernard -
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Here is the last newsletter:
"Back in 2009, after a raid on his businesses in 2007, Bernard von NotHaus, the man behind the Liberty Dollar, was arrested and charged with various crimes connected to counterfeiting. He was convicted in federal court in North Carolina in 2011, but has still not been sentenced.
As I wrote in 2011:
His conviction was based on the premise that a minted round of nearly pure silver that is neither the same size nor denomination as any existing U.S. coin and does not display identical imagery is nonetheless a counterfeit of U.S. currency. In a press release announcing the conviction, U.S. Attorney Anne Tompkins described the Liberty Dollar as a form of “domestic terrorism.”
Von NotHaus, who once ran an organization called the National Organization for the Repeal of the Federal Reserve and Internal Revenue Codes, explicitly advertised his silver product as competition to federal fiat money. He called the Liberty Dollar a “voluntary private barter currency,” a phrase that appeared on the coins in later mintings.
See this from 2012 for many of the details of the convoluted case, and this on the original raids on Liberty Dollar.
This week, a long-simmering motion to have his conviction overturned was denied by U.S. District Judge Richard Vorhees.
Summation and excerpts from Vorhees' order:
these post-conviction filings present a question as to the scope and extent of Congress’s constitutional power to coin money and regulate its value whether Congress, under the Constitution and by enactment of 18 U.S.C. § 486 and its prohibition of coins “intended for use as current money,” has the power to coin money to the exclusion of all others, including individuals like Defendant von Nothaus.....
After presenting a series of what he sees as precedent decisions in support of his conclusion, Vorhees writes: the undersigned is of the opinion, and this Court so finds as a matter of law, that Congress indeed possesses the power to criminalize an individual’s minting of coinage, whether in resemblance of U.S. coins or of original design, that is intended for use as current money.
Von NotHaus had more arguments:
Defendant contends that in order to be “current,” the U.S. money with which the Liberty Dollar is accused of seeking to compete must be genuine items of U.S. currency presently in circulation and of the same denomination.....
According to the defense, because the United States does not mint silver coins in denominations of $5, $10, $20, and $50, the values of the accused Liberty Dollar pieces, the conviction under § 486 must be vacated. The undersigned declines to construe the phrase “intended for use as current money” as narrowly as the defense proposes.....
the Court construes 18 U.S.C. § 486 such that, regardless of the nature of the subject coin (in resemblance or of original design), if a coin is “intended for use as current money” then there must necessarily be a deceptive quality about its design. In other words, resemblance and original design, while capable of independent existence, are not necessarily mutually exclusive under a plain reading of the statute. The rest of Vorhees' opinion knocks down von NotHaus' claims of insufficient evidence of criminal intent, that the jury was given improper instructions on the extent of the government's exclusive power to coin money, and that some of the evidence against him given by federal agents should be considered inadmissable hearsay.
As noted in this Coinweek story on the case, von NotHaus is scheduled to finally receive sentencing in this case on December 2, reminding readers that the 70-year-old man has been awaiting sentence for over 3 and a half years now."
submitted by whitetuxpeng to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bernard Von Nothaus, Currency activist, Mystery guest at Bitcoin Miami

Bernard Von Nothaus, Currency activist, Mystery guest at Bitcoin Miami submitted by bruce_fenton to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

TIL: In May 2009, a Man Named Bernard Von Nothaus Was Charged With the Crime of Counterfeiting By Creating the Liberty Dollar. Later That Year, Satoshi Launched the Bitcoin Cryptocurrency Which Couldn't be Shutdown or Seized by Government Officials.

TIL: In May 2009, a Man Named Bernard Von Nothaus Was Charged With the Crime of Counterfeiting By Creating the Liberty Dollar. Later That Year, Satoshi Launched the Bitcoin Cryptocurrency Which Couldn't be Shutdown or Seized by Government Officials. submitted by JasonMckennan5425234 to btc [link] [comments]

TIL: In May 2009, a Man Named Bernard Von Nothaus Was Charged With the Crime of Counterfeiting By Creating the Liberty Dollar. Later That Year, Satoshi Launched the Bitcoin Cryptocurrency Which Couldn't be Shutdown or Seized by Government Officials.

submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAllTV [link] [comments]

What will happen to Telegram if America does not recognize GRAM as a cryptocurrency?

States around the world are in no hurry to legislatively regulate cryptocurrency, so far its place in the legal field on a par with non-state currencies. You can pay with cryptocurrency and buy goods, but what is important, its transfer is free and unlimited.
In history, there were cases of creating private currencies, but they were never recognized as legal and soon banned.
One resident of the village of Kolionovo near Moscow, Mikhail Shlyapnikov, started printing his own currency, calling it "kolion" and setting a fixed rate - 1 kolion is equal to 50 Russian rubles. At the same time, the Issuer of this "money" claimed that the colions were his personal ious.
The entrepreneur came up with these banknotes when he realized that it was difficult to get a loan on favorable terms. Soon the farmer and his customers began to share with each other the colony. However, prosecutors considered a substitute for money illegal. Economists point out that in the history of humanity has repeatedly resorted to a system of credit.
"The state did not help us in any way, getting a loan was a problem. Then we came up with colions-initially as a fun game, which then turned into a financial instrument that allowed us to resolve a number of issues. Thanks to these receipts, we did not have to take commercial loans. We actually created our own system of" long "loans with a negative ruble rate," Shlyapnikov said.
"Free dollars"
Bernard von Nothaus-the man who created the so-called "freedom Dollars", which he conceived were to replace the us dollar. Little is known about him (Bernard von NotHaus). Even in the ubiquitous Wikipedia, it is only mentioned in connection with the creation of "free dollars". According to the resource, he is also known as the founder of the Free Marijuana Church of Honolulu.
In 2005, U.S. authorities began investigating von Nothaus ' financial activities. In 2006, the U.S. Mint issued a press release warning that "free dollars" are not legal currency.
Bernard von Nothaus went on trial for creating the "National organization for the Repeal of the Federal Reserve and the Internal Revenue Code, NORFED". In 1998, NORFED was renamed Liberty Services.
Liberty Services was engaged in the production and distribution of currency called "free dollar" (Liberty Dollar). "Free dollars" were minted in silver, gold, platinum and copper, and in design (designed again by von Nothaus) resembled official dollars. Thus, they depicted the dollar sign ( $ ), and were written the words - "dollar", the United States and the phrase Trust in God (instead Of in God We Trust).(Unfortunately we couldn't find an image of "Free dollar" on the Internet)
In addition," free dollars " were issued in paper form - in the form of special certificates for gold and silver, which could be exchanged for precious metals in a special warehouse. "Free dollars" were distributed until July 2009.
In July 2009, von Nothaus was arrested, and then formal charges were filed against him. And in March 2011, a North Carolina state court found von Nothaus guilty on two counts. No "exciting" trial occurred: the hearing lasted eight days, and the jury took only two hours to reach a verdict.
Cryptocurrency GRAM
Cryptocurrency Gram from the Creator of the social network Vkontakte and messenger Telegram was the most discussed project of 2018, not only in the digital cash market, but in the world in General. Such excitement among investors, traders, miners and just crypto enthusiasts has not been for a long time.
HYIP around the new cryptocurrency Durov lasts for a year, and news about the launch of TON Telegram-a blockchain on which the new coin will work-are waiting for millions of users from all six continents. Crypt is actively discussed on forums, and the request “where to buy Gram?” is one of the most popular in search engines.
Why telegram has its own cryptocurrency? In 2010, at the very beginning of the era of digital money, Durov already made an attempt to launch a cryptocurrency in the social network Vkontakte. 9 years ago, this initiative did not cause any interest or trust among users, and the launch did not take place. Since then, the attitude to cryptocurrency has changed dramatically. The news of Durov's creation of his cryptocurrency immediately caused a furore. Investors immediately began to consider Gram as a promising source for investments. The coin is launched not by someone there, but by Durov himself, whose previous projects inspire confidence in the success of the new one.
There are opinions that Durov's decision to create TON is connected with the desire to monetize the messenger and gain independence from major advertisers, governments, foundations, etc. Own cryptocurrency will expand Telegram's capabilities and make it even safer.
A direct competitor of Ethereum, capable of creating serious problems even for Bitcoin — Gram from the very beginning is considered as a dangerous rival for the leading representatives of the crypto community. Durov announced the monetization of Telegram, which means that users of the messenger will easily be able to use the built-in TON system and use the new currency for internal calculations and not only.
The United States is afraid of cryptocurrency GRAM?
Why was the US against telegram cryptocurrency and temporarily banned their sale? Us law holds that any issued token that is sold in the US automatically falls under the SEC's control. In fact, the American authorities consider the cryptocurrency, which is issued by various companies, securities.
It is known that buyers during the initial coin offering paid $0.37 per token, and the second round - $1.33 per coin. At a time, investors should invest at least $10 million in the platform. At the same time, during the mass launch of the sale of Gram, the coin should have cost $3.65, but now on the black market, Gram tokens are sold from $5 per piece — the profitability for one coin compared to the first round increased 15 times.
On this basis, the SEC concluded that Gram is a security, not a currency. For such activities, the company needs to disclose information about its work and investors who invest in the project.
The SEC filed a lawsuit against Telegram Inc. and Ton Issuer Inc. and achieved the imposition of an injunction on the distribution of Gram tokens among investors who participated in the presale. 1.7 billion dollars were collected by the project, and the distribution of tokens was planned just now. The decision of the American authorities was extremely brutal and treacherous. Although it is explained by the " care of investors." And the distribution of Gram tokens violates American laws, because, as stated in the lawsuit, it:
- Sale of tokens to us investors without prior registration of their offer, as required by US securities legislation.
The court decision obliges Telegram to register its cryptocurrency as a security or return the money to American investors in case of refusal. The documents of the regulator indicate that among the $ 1.7 billion raised in 2018 for the launch of the blockchain platform, at least $425 million falls on American investors who bought at least 1 billion Gram tokens. At the same time, the number of American investors may be much higher, since many ICO participants keep in the shadows.
submitted by falshami to u/falshami [link] [comments]

Anybody want to buy some NORFED Liberty Dollar brochures and Business Cards? Look here!

Proof photo and Album Click the photos for full-size
MODS: I figured I could post this here because it is relevant to silver and I know many of us SilverBugs are into Norfed Liberty Dollars. I have sold a few of these in /PMsForSale before, but that was with actual Silver LD rounds, so the listing had actual PMs and was relevant there. No actual PMs with this so I didn't think PMsForSale was the right place. Please let it stay, I think people will really dig reading the brochures and owning a piece of silver history.
Hey everybody, as a fellow SilverBug I lurk here often and occasionally make posts and rarely make a thread or 2. I have sold several different items in /PMsForSale before, and as some of you know I am frequently selling silver Norfed Liberty Dollar rounds. I have my own personal collection, and I buy/sell and trade them often; they are my favorite PMs to collect and work with. I have a few different Norfed guys who were involved with Norfed since the early days that I have come to know over time and routinely place orders with them, and I can source almost every Liberty Dollar round ever minted (except for the fractional Golds at the moment), including many of the most rare pieces.
I had bought a good handful of these Norfed LD brochures and business cards before from one of my contacts, and today I received the order I had been waiting on- the complete rest of his stock!
These brochures are very cool, interesting, and relatively rare. I am currently the only one selling them on eBay, as far as I know, but any of you fellow 'Bugs that want one or more can get a special SilverBug price lower than my listed FleaBay price. I could probably come down a little bit on quantity discounts, and could definitely talk quantity discounts for the business cards.
The brochures are a Liberty Dollar brochure released in 2007 (shortly before the raid by the FBI and Secret Service), and they are in great condition. The brochure describes basic information about the Liberty Dollar currency and how it works, and explains inflation and the drop in value of the US Dollar in comparison. It is very interesting and informative, and is a must-have to complement your existing Norfed Liberty Dollar collection, or just something cool to have as we're into silver and it is a unique part of silver history.
This brochure is #7 in "The Liberty Dollar Encyclopedia"-
With each purchase of a brochure I'm also including a nice "$20 Silver Base" business card for Norfed and the Liberty Dollar!
Brief Back Story (for those who don't know): Forming in 1998, Norfed (National Organization for the Repeal of the FEDeral Reserve and the Internal Revenue Code) sought out to create an alternative circulating currency that was actually backed by real value (i.e.- Gold, Silver, Platinum), unlike the US Dollar which had lost its gold & silver backing and became only a paper fiat currency. From 1998 to 2007, Norfed produced and sold Silver and Gold "Liberty Dollars" and encouraged them to be circulated and spent within buyers' local communities. Liberty Dollars had been minted by Sunshine Minting, the same mint that produced many of the planchets that the US gov. used for their own coins, and each coin was minted with a "Proof" quality strike, although Bernard von Nothaus (Norfed founder) did not like to refer to them as Proof coins since they were intended for circulation. In late 2007, the FBI and Secret Service raided Liberty Dollar offices and Sunshine Minting and seized millions of dollars worth of Norfed's and customers' Gold, Silver, and Platinum, in addition to almost 2 tons of Silver "Ron Paul Dollars" they had just created for the Anti-Fed. Reserve US Senator and then presidential-hopeful Ron Paul. Bernard von Nothaus was indicted (along with 3 others) and charged with several Federal crimes, and the US basically said he was counterfeiting US coins and attempting to pass them.
Anyways, it's a fascinating story and a logic & reasoning that I think many silvegold stackers can understand. Read More here:
I'm asking $6.50 shipped for 1 of each, and this price includes tracked shipping in a bubble mailer, with the brochure and card taped in between 2 layers of cardboard (to ensure your purchase does not get bent in transit).
If you're okay with me folding it up in a few pieces of paper and shipping it in an envelope with a stamp, I can do you fellow 'Bugs a special price of $4.50 shipped! (Please note that this method will not come with any tracking, but I can send you a proof pic of the stamped and addressed envelope before I send it if you want.) If paying with Bitcoin, take 50 cents off your total!
I have seen single Norfed Liberty Dollar brochures sold on eBay before for $10-$12 a piece, and have seen single "$20 Base" business cards listed for $10+ themselves. You can own one of each for only $4.50-$6.50 Shipped (depending on your shipping preference)!
Quantity discounts available! The proof picture is only a chunk of them. Message for details!
Payment Info: PayPal Friends & Family (with a blank note line) or Bitcoin only please. (But if you're wanting to buy a big enough quantity I could maybe justify setting up a Google Wallet thingy.)
Would also consider trade ideas! Make a trade offer; you've got nothing to lose!
If you have any questions, comments, or concerns just ask! PM to buy!
submitted by snarlpill to Silverbugs [link] [comments]

What is @PaulG (Paul Graham) talking about? A physical crypto coin?

"Imagine a stored-value card so thin it could be folded, and that could be accepted with zero hardware. The catch: the value is fixed."
"So it has to be surrendered on the first use. You can however get similar cards with smaller fixed values in return."
Of course, this technically could be done by any issuer, but ask Bernard Von Nothaus about the consequences, or any other forms of private currency "utterance".
So some bearer instrument, apparently. Accepted with zero hardware, I presume, means it is tamper-evident so can be accepted on sight, without electronic validation that the value inside hasn't been spent. So like some physical bitcoin (in card form) that is cheap to make. Meant to be able to be redeemed back into an exchange at any time, but wouldn't necessarily need to be -- could be accepted on sight and then used by the merchant to pay a supplier, for instance.
Obviously, there's something that piqued his interest. I'm just curious what specifically he's describing.
submitted by cointastical to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

08-19 20:42 - 'Dinero fiduciario y bancos, la evolución de la deuda, del trueque al BITCOIN' (self.Bitcoin) by /u/BitcoinQueEs removed from /r/Bitcoin within 0-7min

El dinero parece es algo necesario hoy en día, es la preocupación primordial de toda la sociedad y causa de grandes desvelos, ¿pero de dónde surgió él?, ¿porque somos tan dependiente en la sociedad actual del uso del papel moneda?, ¿en que radica su naturaleza?.
El comienzo de todo
Si bien en un comienzo el trueque fue el instrumento necesario para el comercio, éste poseía restricciones a la hora del intercambio que hizo que el hombre tuviese que disponer de dinero para poder cambiar los bienes de una forma más efectiva, con la división del trabajo que fue surgiendo en antiguas culturas la gente se percató que necesitaban un medio de intercambio para ofrecer bienes que tenían y adquirir bienes que necesitaban, y nació el dinero. El dinero ha existido de muchos tipos pero las necesidades para un comercio efectivo hace que todos deban 5 características esenciales:
el dinero debe tener una relativa escasez debe ser reconocible de forma fácil tiene que admitir su división en piezas chicas debe ser posible la sustitución de una pieza por otra de igual valor su transporte tiene que ser fácil
Cualquier cosa que presentase esas características podía ser utilizado como moneda para el intercambio de bienes, por ejemplo en su instante en Roma ha sido la sal, los aztecas usaban granos de cacao, en Africa y China usaron diferentes elementos como el marfil, granos y metal entre otros.
Pero las mercancías que no son duraderas no pueden almacenarse, y la gran variabilidad en la disponibilidad de algunos de estos objetos podía hacer que el valor de la moneda variara de una manera apreciable provocando grandes inconvenientes en el comercio y la economía, era necesario un sistema más estable.
Hace dos milenios y medios fueron acuñadas las primeras monedas de metal en China y en el territorio que hoy corresponde a Turquía, monedas que compartían las 5 características del dinero, sobre todo la durabilidad que hace que algunas de ellas hayan sobrevivido hasta el día de hoy.
Las monedas se transformaron en una medida universal y favorecía el intercambio de bienes entre la gente en grandes territorios, había entonces visto la luz lo que hoy conocemos como economía de mercado.
La acuñación de monedas de forma periódica y predecible contribuyó a un gran fomento del mercado y alto crecimiento económico, pero la estabilidad del mercado y la economía estaba en estrecha relación con la confiabilidad en el rey o emperador, ya que era necesario confiar en que éstos no engañasen sobre el contenido real en metal que las monedas poseían. Dinero, poder político y confianza comenzaron a estar fuertemente relacionados desde el inicio.
Pero no todo era color de rosas, mientras que en los tiempos actuales tantas sociedades han tenido que solventar grandes rescates de bancos parece casi anecdótico encontrarnos que ya en la antigua Roma ocurrió el primer rescate bancario de la historia. El imperio más grande que había existido sobre la tierra había caído en desgracia y Tiberio tuvo que asistir al rescate bancario y empresas en aprietos con el dinero del tesoro nacional.
Con el paso del tiempo los impuestos permitieron la construcción de grandes castillos y la financiación de extensas campañas militares, más en el proceso los reyes de Europa mediante las casas de monedas reales en lugar de usar oro y plata comenzaron a utilizar metales baratos para la acuñación de monedas, y nos encontramos con otro concepto tan común en estos días, devaluación, y el mercado ganó en desconfianza y dificultandose el intercambio entre diferentes países.
Y entonces aquí surgió otra innovación financiera cuando los mercaderes se percataron del valor de la deuda de una persona, y que si el deudor era una persona de confianza, donde su palabra y promesa de pago era respetable, esa deuda tenía entonces un valor que podía comercializarse y transferirse. Vamos viendo que ante un problema siempre surgió una solución o alternativa a éste, así cuando los pagares venían de fuentes fiables se usaban como papel dinero, un dinero que no estaba soportado por metales o mercancía, sino por la confianza en el pago de lo adeudado, el comercio avanzaba cada vez más a la realidad que conocemos en la actualidad.
Y mientras todo esto ocurría los orfebres poseían cada vez más cantidad de monedas de materiales nobles, y al querer prestar éstas para lograr un interés se encontraron con que la gente comenzó a preferir no llevar las monedas sino solamente un escrito, un papel que estableciera que esas monedas estaban en los bancos, y surge así la posibilidad de que los banqueros pudiesen imprimir dinero.
Paso a paso ya todo se nos vuelve más familiar y ese papel moneda comenzó a masificarse en su uso y a entrar en directa rivalidad con las monedas acuñadas por la misma corona, la que comenzó a perder el poder inherente otorgado por la capacidad de emisión y control del dinero El cobro de impuestos ya no era tan fácil, y con las extensas guerras los países europeos se vieron en un gran déficit para soportarlas, con lo que los reyes tuvieron que acudir a familias de mercaderes que por ese entonces eran banqueros y financieros con grandes riquezas, para financiarse pidiendo prestado el dinero que se comprometían a pagar con futuros impuestos. Nace allí un instrumento de gran uso en nuestro días, los bonos de gobierno.
Aquellos viejos tiempos
Hacia finales del siglo XVII fue creado el banco de Inglaterra, el cual era de propiedad privada y poseía el monopolio de la impresión de billetes de banco que podían cambiarse a voluntad de los tenedores por la cantidad de oro de las reservas del gobierno que estos billetes especificacen. La deuda de la corona fue controlada por el banco central en un breve tiempo.
El mismo derecho de impresión monopólica del dinero se da cuando los Estados Unidos logran su independencia, garantizandose en su nueva constitución el derecho exclusivo del congreso para acuñar dinero, el cual estaba ligado a las reservas de oro que poseía el gobierno.
A comienzos del siglo XX banqueros y políticos de Estados Unidos acordaron en crear un banco central permanente naciendo así la Reserva Federal, que tenía entre sus objetivos aumentar o reducir la circulación de monedas para impedir los altibajos dados en la economía, suponiendo con su accionar un impedimento para la formación de burbujas financieras (recalcamos, suponiendo)
Más algo acontecería a la vuelta de la esquina y en 1929 se daría la gran depresión que impactaría de lleno en la política monetaria de los Estados Unidos y del mundo entero. La Reserva Federal ya había imprimido todo el dinero posible según la reserva de oro que poseían pero necesitaban imprimir aún más para inyectar ésta en la economía y reactivarla, con lo que el presidente Roosevelt estableció la orden ejecutiva que obligaba a todo ciudadano a vender el oro que tuviese a la reserva federal. Debía aceptarse su venta al precio que se había fijado o, de lo contrario, ir a la cárcel. Paralelamente la Reserva compraba oro extranjero a un precio mayor, con lo que el oro fue creciendo con el tiempo y el uso del dólar se extendió por todo el mundo.
Luego de la segunda guerra mundial la gran mayoría de los países terminaron con sus economías desvastadas, salvo muy pocos países entre los que se encontraba los Estados Unidos, que surgieron como una superpotencia tanto en el ámbito militar, como en el industrial y el financiero, convirtiéndose el dólar en la moneda adoptada globalmente por su estabilidad y fiabilidad, haciendo que muchos países establecieran un estrecho vínculo de sus monedas con el mismo dólar, ya que éste último aún se regía por el patrón oro (se podía cambiar por oro cuando uno lo deseara, teniendo los Estados Unidos más de la mitad del oro existente globalmente).
Así con el pasar del tiempo y con el creciente comercio una gran cantidad de dólares fueron distribuidos a lo largo del mundo, dándose paulatinamente una devaluación de las monedas de diferentes países, mediante monedas con metales mas económicos y una sobre impresión de papel moneda por sobre las reservas de oro que éstos países poseían. Cada vez más se rompía el vínculo entre el papel moneda y los metales preciosos, y para 1966 muchas naciones demandaron oro a cambio de la gran cantidad de dólares que tenían, provocando un vaciamiento cada vez mayor de las reservas norteamericanas, y en 1971 el gigante del norte decreto mediante su presidente Nixon el quiebre del patrón oro, estableciéndose que los dólares ya no dependerían del oro y que nadie podría exigir a los Estados Unidos la entrega de oro mediante dólares.
Fue en ese preciso momento en que el dólar pasó a estar solamente sostenido por la confianza del mercado y la fiabilidad en los Estados Unidos que para ese entonces era el estado con mayores riquezas en la historia de la humanidad.
Pero los tiempos cambian, y con el paso de los años y diferentes escenarios económicos los Estados Unidos pasaron a tener una gran deuda debiendo pagar más de 400 billones de dólares en intereses anuales, ya que uno de los caminos para cubrir los gastos de un país cuando los gastos superan a los ingresos es como se puede adivinar recurrir a préstamos, o imprimir más papel moneda. Así Estados Unidos emite bonos o letras (como es práctica común en los diferentes países) los cuales son vendidos en el mercados siendo adquiridos en gran parte por los bancos que luego son vendidos a las reserva federal adquiriendo una ganancia.
La reserva federal es el banco central de EEUU, y es además quien determina las tasas de intereses que se pagan por el crédito que los ciudadanos solicitan, y cuando los bancos llevan los bonos a la reserva federal y entonces se acredita el importe en la cuenta de resultados del banco.
Respecto a la creación de nuevo papel moneda, todos los bancos centrales del mundo deben tener especial cuidado las cantidades creadas ya que -a pesar de que se hace necesario ingresar nuevo dinero en la economía- esta inyección también provoca un aumento en los precios y, en el caso del gigante norteamericano, una desvalorización cada vez mayor del dólar.
Los tiempos modernos
En los tiempos modernos muchas personas asumen que los ahorros están bien cuidados y guardados en los bancos, sin embargo esto dista mucho de la realidad. Una vez que el dinero está en el banco y éste puede hacer uso casi de la totalidad de él, y en el proceso de sus operaciones puede crearse más dinero.
Por ejemplo supongamos que María ha logrado ahorrar a través de los años parte de sus ingresos, unos 100.000 dólares, y entonces los deposita en el banco. El banco tiene entre sus servicios el préstamo de dinero, entonces llega Juan que quiere comprarse una casa, y le pide prestado al banco, éste le presta 90.000 dólares. En nuestra cuenta sigue apareciendo que tenemos 100.000 dólares, pero sin embargo ese número solo representa un saldo en nuestra cuenta, sólo un número en ordenadores, ya que en el banco sólo se conservaron 10.000 dólares, y nuestro depósito no está garantizado por papel moneda, ni por oro, nada respalda nuestro dinero, es sólo el banco y la confianza en la solvencia de él (de hecho el banco quebraría si todos los depositantes quisieran hacerse sólo con una pequeña parte de su dinero al mismo tiempo).
Sucede entonces algo curioso, el banco cobra un interés de digamos, 10%, entonces en la cuenta de Juan en el banco tenemos que entonces que éste debe ahora 99.000 dólares (los 90.000 prestados, mas 9.000 de interés), y así nos encontramos que existe ahora la cuenta de María con 100.000, la de Juan con 99.000 (al decir verdad los bancos pueden incluso prestar mucho más dinero del existente en sus reservas, algo conocido como reserva fraccionaria). Vemos que esos 9.000 dólares fueron creados de la nada, el dinero es creado a partir de la deuda. Luego que Juan compra la casa, el vendedor deposita el dinero en otro banco, que lo volverá a prestar, y así sucesivamente, en un sistema que va creando más dinero de la misma forma.
Bancos inescrupulosos y prácticas irresponsables llevaron a la pasada crisis financiera del 2008, mediante el otorgamiento indiscriminado de préstamos que los acreedores no podían pagar, luego esta deuda era empaquetada y vendida a otros ya que era un buen negocio… se estaba exportando el desastre financiero hacia todo el mundo. El resultado a la larga fue penoso para muchos, millones de puestos de trabajos perdidos, grandes pérdidas en patrimonio inmobiliario, millones de casas embargadas, y rescates bancario, con muchos responsables recibiendo bonus y beneficios fiscales soportados por el aporte de los contribuyentes, los “civiles comunes”.
Pero algo muy novedoso ocurriría casi al mismo tiempo. Cada cierto tiempo se presenta una innovación tecnológica, una idea que plasma grandes cambios en la sociedad. En aquel 2008 Satoshi Nakamoto publico un paper en una lista de correo que describía un idea de dinero digital mantenido en una red de forma descentralizada.
Aún hoy no tenemos claro quien fue Satoshi Nakamoto, ¿fue una sóla persona, ¿un grupo de personas?, ¿una institución? Quizás que haya (o hayan) preferido el anonimato haya sido una elección planeada por seguridad personal, ya que existe el caso de Bernard Von Nothaus, que a finales del siglo XX decidió acuñar el Liberty Dólar en oro, plata, platino y cobre como así también en forma de recibo de depósito, algo que le valió su detención y cargos de fraude y conspiración, ya que la constitución de los Estados Unidos prohíbe a civiles acuñar o imprimir moneda que pueda dañar o entrar en competencia con el dólar, más que una buena razón para que Satoshi haya decidido permanecer en el anonimato!
Publicó su trabajo bajo ese seudónimo y entonces desapareció de la escena, dejándonos el legado de una nueva moneda digital, mejor conocida comocriptomoneda, el bitcoin, el código abierto de un nuevo sistema, un protocolo que nos da la posibilidad de ser los verdaderos poseedores de nuestras riquezas, el legado de una moneda infalsificable, que no se puede bloquear, ni anular cuentas, con una seguridad basada en las matemáticas reales, y un libro contable descentralizado que asegura nuestros fondos al no necesitar de la confianza hacia un tercero que guarde nuestro dinero.
Es además de una moneda también una red de pagos global, mucho más económico que los costos por medios convencionales y además necesitando como infraestructura para su uso sólo un equipo conectado a internet, un laptop, o un celular por ejemplo, y nos libera la posibilidad de un comercio mundial sin restricciones. El bitcoin es también una moneda limitada en su cantidad de forma matemática, totalmente opuesto a la creación sin límite del papel moneda tradicional que acarrea inflación. No serán creados más de 21 millones, ése es su límite.
El gran aporte de Satoshi fue ese libro contable distribuido de Bitcoin, ese libro mayor conocido como cadena de bloques o blockchain, que contiene el registro de todos los bitcoins existentes y de todas las operaciones y transacciones hechas en la red Bitcoin desde el inicio. Esta red sincroniza el libro mayor por cada nodo (conocidos como mineros) de la red global, cada nodo tiene una copia total de libro contable, ya no es necesario confiar en nadie, porque el libro es ahora distribuido de forma global. Un libro global que también dispara grandes posibilidades en muchas direcciones y es también un sistema para conservar de forma segura títulos de propiedad, contratos, infinidad de posibilidades que se encuentra con esta tecnología mas allá incluso de su uso como moneda.
Y esta tecnología está aquí, y parece que para quedarse. Pese a grandes variaciones en su cotización, el bitcoin siempre ha mantenido una curva ascendente en su precio, y ha pasado en pocos años de valer centavos a miles de dólares por bitcoin.
La tecnología digital nos ha puesto en otra era, ha moldeado el mundo en cada uno de sus detalles cotidianos, y nos ha transformado en el día a día, con un mundo más interconectado, mas información disponible, comunicación impensable décadas atrás, una red global que hasta escapaba a la imaginación de autores de ciencia ficción no hace mucho tiempo atrás. Y todo eso hoy es real, y una vez más estamos viviendo una nueva y verdadera revolución con el Bitcoin, el futuro de las criptomonedas solo el mismo futuro lo dirá, pero es una revolución, y es una revolución se está ocurriendo ahora mismo.
Fuente: [link]1
Dinero fiduciario y bancos, la evolución de la deuda, del trueque al BITCOIN
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Author: BitcoinQueEs
1: bitc*in*uees.*nf***inero_*iduciari**y_ba*c*s*la_*volucion*d*_*a_deud*.ht*l
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In Case you Haven't Read the 2nd Community Interview with Sunny King Because you Haven't Signed up at the Forum yet, Here it is...

Some people have not signed up at yet and don't have access to Sunny's interview, so here it is...
Sunny King: hi all
JustaBitofTime: Hey Sunny, nice to have you with us. Are you ready to get started?
Sunny King: Yes John I'm ready.
JustaBitofTime: Coolbeans94 wanted to know about Peercoin's long term approach, he asks "27. Is its design more for long-term security and sustainability? How does that relate to Bitcoin’s longterm vision?(Coolbeans94)"
Sunny King: @Coolbeans 94. Both PPC and XPM are designed to last. PPC is designed with energy efficiency, XPM is designed with energy multiuse. Bitcoin has a long term uncertainty as to whether transaction fees can sustain good enough level of security. Before that the main concern is how to balance transaction volume and transaction fee levels. Currently I get the feeling that bitcoin developers favor very low transaction fees and very high transaction volume, to be competitive against centralized systems (paypal, visa, mastercard etc) in terms of transaction volume, to the point of sacrificing decentralization. This also brings major uncertainties to bitcoin's future.
Sunny King: @Coolbeans 94. From my point of view, I think the cryptocurrency movement needs at least one 'backbone' currency, or more, that maintains high degree of decentralization, maintains high level of security, but not necessarily providing high volume of transactions. Thinking of savings accounts and gold coins, you don't transact them at high velocity but they form the backbone of the monetary systems.
Sunny King: @Coolbeans 94. Pure proof-of-work systems such as bitcoin is not 100% suitable for this task. This is because transaction fee is not a reliable incentive to sustain network security. If the mining generation amount is kept constant (there have been several such attempts in altcoins) it would work better security-wise but then it would also significantly weaken the scarcity property of the currency. XPM's inflation model is designed in such a way that it could serve as backbone currency better than bitcoin if needed, because it could maintain high security reliably for longer, with reasonably good scarcity property as well. Of course that's only from architect's point of view, whether or not it would be chosen by the market is a whole different matter.
JustaBitofTime: Along those lines the community wanted to know ""If the tax fees are to remain fixed at 0.01 and Peercoin becomes widely adopted, (Thus a sharp rise in value) the fees could become too much for microtransactions. What would happen in this case? What solutions do you imagine to get around the microtransaction issue?"
Sunny King: @Coolbeans 94. PPC is designed to serve even better as a backbone currency. The proof-of-stake technology in PPC is not only energy efficient; it also maintains high level of security without relying on transaction fee. Thus PPC could be safely designed with strong scarcity property yet serving well as backbone currency.
Sunny King: @Coolbeans 94. Both PPC and XPM use protocol enforced transaction fees, which reflects my preference that high transaction volume is discouraged in favor of serving as backbone currencies.
JustaBitofTime: Speaking of security, there's often quite a bit of debate surrounding the PPC vs XPM checkpointing. 27.5 Will checkpoints be optional like they are in XPM in the next client version?
Sunny King: @transaction fees: Right now if we are talking about micropayments in the US$1 range, both PPC and XPM still handle them with much lower overhead than credit card network. In the long term micropayments should be provided by centralized providers, or a less decentralized network optimized for high capacity transaction processing.
Sunny King: @transaction fees: On the other hand there is no promise that minimum transaction fee wouldn't be adjusted. If processing capacity of personal computers continues to advance at the current pace, both max block size and minimum transaction fee could very well be adjusted at some point. However I do take a very cautious approach to adjusting transaction fees, as opposed to bitcoin devs. The impact to the fitness of the currency as a backbone currency is of great concerns to me.
Sunny King: @checkpoint: Decentralization of PPC checkpoint is currently planned to begin in v0.5. It would be a gradual process.
JustaBitofTime: I can tell you from my own Libertarian leaning, being able to add some layer of anonymous transactions is important to me. 47. Can you tell us more about 'sendtoaddressfrom' and Avatar mode? Will this be released in the next client version? (JustaBitofTime)
Sunny King: @JustaBitofTime Yeah this is still at conceptual stage. It shares some similarity to coin control. However from user point of view I'd like them to think in terms of avatars instead of addresses and coins, it's simpler and better for privacy.
Sunny King: The main rule is that in avatar mode the client doesn't automatically assemble coins from different avatars into the same transaction but it can still do so within an avatar
JustaBitofTime: One of the challenges the Peercoin community faces is breaking down all the technical nuances of the coin. Alertness asks "60. Could you please explain exactly how the level of PoW and PoS difficulty is calculated? (Alertness)"
Sunny King: so you probably need to specify which avatar the money should come from in a send
Sunny King: I would wait to see how coin control is introduced in bitcoin first. If bitcoin implements similar concepts first that would be nice too.
Sunny King: @Alertness For simplicity we can think of the difficulty adjustment of PoW and PoS blocks independent of each other. Basically it uses some technique called 'exponential moving' to keep the block spacing relatively constant. It adjusts on every block and smoother than bitcoin's adjustment, responding to change of network hash rate much faster than bitcoin, but at the same time not too fast to make difficulty manipulation exploits difficult.
Sunny King: @Alertness PoS blocks have a constant 10-minute spacing target. PoW blocks have a variable spacing target, between 10-minute and 2-hour, but on average it's about 30-minute when PoS block spacing is close to the 10-minute target. This serves to reduce the variation of block spacing.
JustaBitofTime: Along those lines, 60.5 Could you please spend some time talking about the environmental impact of Bitcoin vs Peercoin now and then in the future? (JustaBitofTime)
Sunny King: @JustaBitofTime I don't like to paint bitcoin in a negative picture because it's indeed a brilliant system with high integrity and reasonably good inflation design. High energy consumption is only a minor blemish. To say that it's gold 2.0 I think is quite reasonable.
Sunny King: But if we can solve one of the issues with gold and gold 2.0, their environmental impact, that would be very nice, wouldn't it? We all want to live on a cleaner and happier earth, right? So we should take this task more seriously and PPC provides a possible solution.
Sunny King: On the other hand we should also respect other people's free will. For example we should not force other people to not mine bitcoin or participate in distributed computing projects, because of the environmental cost. So XPM complements the goal here as it produces additional scientific value from the consumed energy. So people who like to mine cryptocurrency for whatever reason have a better choice to mine, to get more benefit out of the mining activity and environmental cost.
JustaBitofTime: For our non-technical users, how does PoS factor into the environmental impact? In other words, 1 friend is mining Bitcoin and the other is mining Peercoin. How does that look now and how does it look in 1 year?
Sunny King: Currently PPC market cap is still small, so the effect is still small. If PPC becomes as successful as BTC, then the energy saving would be significant, and more and more so as difficulty rises
JustaBitofTime: As difficulty rises, what is the net effect? I feel this is an area that many new to the coin have trouble making the connection.
Sunny King: A caveat here is that the energy consumption on bitcoin mining might drop in the long term as well, due to lack of incentive in mining. However this would drop bitcoin's security level
JustaBitofTime: You spoke about producing additional scientific value from consumed energy with XPM. 55. What are your thoughts about [email protected]? Do you see a place for it in crypto coins?
Sunny King: Difficulty increase in PPC reduces inflation rate, which also reduces the energy consumption. This is assuming market capitalization stays the same
Sunny King: It's hard to say, I am not an expert in protein folding algorithms but I can imagine it would be hard to completely decentralize. There has been a proposal of a less decentralized solution whereas traditional hashing provides network security and half of the minting, whereas folding computation provides the other half of the minting using the existing centralized distributed computing network. This approach is not limited to [email protected] though, people are also thinking about other networks such as BOINC.
Sunny King: The problem with this system is whether trust is required on the centralized distributed computing network to not abuse the system and counterfeit. Without solving such problems it's not a serious currency system in my opinion, but on the other hand we do see existing systems in operation with centralized minting, such as DVC and FRC. So this type of systems definitely has some niche in the market.
JustaBitofTime: Shifting gears here, Jimmy asks "Q1 New: When will the development team release the official ppcoin specification? (Jimmy) Clarification “We got the paper last year, but we need a protocol specification detail similar to , especially for POS and the integration of POW with POS. The specification is important to developers and the general users who are interested in ppcoin.”
Sunny King: @Jimmy There is no set plans for this yet. If the demand is strong I could look into getting a summary of difference between bitcoin protocol spec and ppcoin protocol spec.
JustaBitofTime: Between 2 different coins, you obviously have your hands full. Romerun asks "Last interview sunny say if he somehow disappears Scott will fill in. But up till now we don't really know who he is, or how much commitment of him to the project / etc. There could be the issue of impostor too, so it would be benefit to the community to clear this up. And wouldn't it be better to have a few more key devs to PPC."
JustaBitofTime: My understanding was Scott was capable of filling in, however, has not worked on PPC recently?
Sunny King: That's right. For some reason Scott isn't as motivated as I am. I also look forward to having more developers with ppc, right now I think xpm team is in good shape, quite a number of people are working on xpm miners which requires a good understanding of the innerworkings of primecoin.
Sunny King: So I think as our community grows there will be more talents showing up. I am still pounding scott to be actively involved as well
JustaBitofTime: As your development team expands for XPM, Muto asks "35. Do you plan to release another currency? (Muto)"
Sunny King: @Muto 35. No such plan right now. I have recently turned down a few invitations to work on other currency projects due to my responsibility in PPC and XPM. I am committed to further improve PPC and XPM's competitiveness in the market.
JustaBitofTime: Speaking of competitiveness in the market, Romerun would like to know "What are the development priorities/future features of PPC/XMP in Sunny's mind? online wallet? etc."
JustaBitofTime: I understand marketing and overall community development/involvement is a big part of the overall plan.
Sunny King: I have touched a few things last week I think, there are other things I have in mind but don't wish to talk about yet. I am constantly evaluating market situation to figure out what's the best features to compete in the market
JustaBitofTime: Let's change it up again 8. Who are your business and personal heroes? (MeBeingAwesome)
Sunny King: As to services and apps I usually leave those to the market to support. If I were to be involved in a service somehow I think it needs to have profit potential
Sunny King: and not divert too much of my resources and time
Sunny King: @MeBEingAwesome Right now I am in the business of cryptocurrency As to my heroes, I think Satoshi qualifies as one. We know that before bitcoin came into existence, several pioneers in the digital currency world have made sacrifices, such as Douglass Jackson the founder of e-gold, Bernard von NotHaus the founder of Liberty Dollar, among many others. These efforts are part of the same movement to decentralize the control of money, from potentially rising oppressive governments. Gold was demonetized to mainly facilitate centralized power, that gives governments power to do a lot more damage, to do whatever they want. Through history we can see the corruption of morality of governments, for example, in the 1860's US governement still had the integrity to return to gold standard after civil war, while in the 1930's it no longer had such integrity after an economic depression. Not only that, it developed audacity to blame the depression on gold. It's very difficult to restore morality of governments.
Sunny King: The cryptocurrency movement, arising from the lessons of e-gold and liberty dollar, gives people a powerful tool to peacefully return to the principle of limited government. We all thank Satoshi whose brilliant mind and effort enabled this movement. Of course there are a lot more things going on in the societies outside cryptocurrency world, to preserve mankind's freedom, to elevate mankind's morality and spirituality, so there are many heroes around us.
JustaBitofTime: I completely respect your desire to remain anonymous. If the code is open, that should speak for itself. With that being said, there are people that claim you might be someone involved with the Satoshi team early on. Can you speak to that rumor? Also, did you have any involvement with Satoshi directly?
Sunny King: I wish I were as that would have made me very rich I am also curious to who Satoshi really is, what led him to such great achievement. But on the other hand I also wish him a peaceful life not having to endure such hardships like NotHaus
JustaBitofTime: For those not familiar with NotHaus, please look into Liberty Dollar.
Look in the comments for the rest...
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Learn How To Save Money With Silver! Liberty Dollar Raid 1 Bitcoin and Alternative Currencies on The Stream Bernard von NotHaus at New Hampshire Liberty Forum 2008 Bernard von NotHaus on Ron Paul and the Liberty Dollar

Bitcoin is a distributed, worldwide, decentralized digital money … Press J to jump to the feed. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts. r/Bitcoin. log in sign up. User account menu. 7. Why is the bitcoin community not outraged by the Bernard von NotHaus/Liberty Dollar case? Close. 7. Posted by. u/whitetuxpeng. 5 years ago. Archived. Why is the bitcoin community not ... Category: Bernard von Nothaus. Home; Bernard von Nothaus; Doing What You Want With Your Money Is a Fundamental Right . August 24, 2019 . alternative currencies, Anarchism, anti-state, BCH, Bernard von Nothaus, Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Blockchain, BTC, Cryptocurrencies, Digital Assets, Financial Sovereignty, Individualism, John Locke, liberty dollar, Op-Ed, Opinion, Separation of Money and State ... Bernard von NotHaus is charged with one count of conspiracy to possess and sell coins in resemblance and similitude of coins of a denomination higher than five cents, and silver coins in resemblance of genuine coins of the United States in denominations of five dollars and greater, in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 485, 18 U.S.C. § 486, and 18 U.S.C. § 371; one count of mail fraud in violation of ... Bernard von Nothaus ACT, alternative currencies, Anarchism, anti-state, BCH, Bernard von Nothaus, Bitcoin, bitcoin cash, BTC, Cryptocurrencies, Digital Assets, Financial Sovereignty, Individualism, John Locke, liberty dollar, Op-Ed, Op/Ed, Opinion, Separation of Money and State, sovereignty, Thomas Jefferson “Faire ce que vous voulez avec votre argent est un droit fondamental” 24/08/2019 ... It’s everyone’s dream to get paid to do nothing. Bitcoin miner Layer1 is turning that dream into reality — having figured out how to make money even when its machines are turned off.

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Learn How To Save Money With Silver!

Old news but still relevant today. One year ago this week on July, 31 2009 Bernard von NotHaus owner of Liberty Dollar in Indiana was arrested during an FBI raid. The Fed and secret service seized ... Bernard von NotHaus talks about Ron Paul and the Liberty Dollar. Bitcoin Cryptocurrency Crash Course with Andreas Antonopoulos - Jefferson Club Dinner Meetup - Duration: 1:12:22. Jefferson Club Silicon Valley 193,014 views 1:12:22 Bernard von NotHaus - Monetary Architect of the Liberty Dollar UPDATE: On March 18, 2011 Bernard von NotHaus was convicted in Federal District Court in State... An anonymous, trans-national network manages an Internet-based "crypto-currency" that many say is untraceable and uncontrollable. Bitcoin is a currency designed four years ago by an pseudonymous ...